In region with lower end of the economic status, many adults try to meet their ends meet by dealing in illegal activities (such as drugs).
When the children/adolescent observe this, they are much more likely to imitate them an increase their likelihood of joining gangs.
Breakdown in the social controls of the community
What is differential opportunity theory ?
This theory states that if people are faced with low socioeconomic status from their upbringing and have less available opportunities to succeed they will grasp and use whatever is available to achieve their desired success even it means going all illegally .
They are three subcultures under this theory which are crime, conflict and retreatist.
These subcultures are dependent on the environment.
Crime: In an environment where there are already available gang members or groups a person is likely to view that as an alternative towards achieving their desired success. A person or a teen will join these gang members and improve themselves within these groups based on available positions.
Conflict: is where teens fight to dominate and can be only recognised or accepted within these groups based on how they win these conflicts to obtain dominance they have to fight for their positions otherwise they can't be considered. Juan has failed in this due to the fact that he can't win the fights.
Retreatist in this subculture a person has to be considered if they can successfully use drugs. Juan has tried all drugs but had failed on this part also hence we can conclude that he will eventually join the crime subculture.
It is the idea that people (usually teens) from low socioeconomic backgrounds, who have few opportunities for success, will use any means at their disposal to achieve success. The means are generally referred to as subcultures.
The answer is - Retreatist
There are three types of gangs which young people are likely to join and they are; Criminal, Conflict, Retreatist gang. The retreatist gang are gangs that develop because the youth are unable to be successful through legal means and are also unwilling to do so through illegal means. They therefore use drugs and alcohol as a means of escape from reality and are constantly looking for ways to get high.
The answer is conflict subculture. If a juvenile joins a gang in which he achieves his status through violence and toughness, then he is included in the conflict subculture.
Cloward and Ohlin believe in the differential opportunity theory. They made this theory explain that there are different kinds of criminal subcultures in America. People will want to achieve goals. Some people achieve goals through socially acceptable ways, but there are also differential opportunity structures that can be achieved through gang membership. Cloward and Ohlin believe that there are three kinds of deviant subculture:
1. Criminal subculture
In these subcultures, people can do organized crimes. People can be career criminals who socialize with other youths to join their criminal careers. This act can eventually result in material success.
2. Conflict subculture
This type of subculture is not an organized one, meanwhile, it was made by young people themselves. This type of gang claims its territory. They believe that having a lot of territories means a lot of power.
3. Retreats subculture
In this subculture, the people who are not able to have the legitimate or illegitimate opportunity have the possibility to drop out together but also have the possibility to be in a group together. These groups might end up doing drugs, etc.
The question stated that a juvenile joins a gang in which he achieves his status through violence and toughness, then he is included in the conflict subculture.
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KEYWORD: differential opportunity, gang, conflict subculture, retreats subculture, criminal subculture
Subject: Social Studies
Subchapter: Theory of Differential Opportunity
Criminal subcultures gear towards organized crimes, where they commit criminal acts to climb the social ladder in the criminal world and are rewarded through financial means.
Conflict subcultures on the other hand tend to do less serious crimes, but instead use violence as a way to gain respect.
Retreatist subcultures turn to drugs and alcohol, seeing themselves as rejects.
With that, the answer would be Conflict subcultures or a conflict gang.
it brings together the military and civilian sectors of society to harness the total power of the nation. it is the mechanism that facilitates the successful prosecution of any conflict.it brings together the military and civilian sectors of society to harness the total power of the nation. it is the mechanism that facilitates the successful prosecution of any conflict.
answer; the three types of research;