Under a conditional privilege, a party will not be held liable for defamation unless the false statement was made with actual malice, that is, with either knowledge of its falsity or reckless disregard for its truth.
Option - a
Actual malice is the legal requirement imposed on specific defamation complaints when filing a lawsuit for slander or libel, and will be found where a accused person publishes or reports a false statement, knowing its falsehood or contempt or disregard for its truthfulness.
Defamation is defeating the reputation of an individual. It has two forms namely,Slander - spoken defamationLibel - broadcast or printed defamation
Other than this both the form has the same features. Defamation does not hinder voicing of ideas and opinions, but it occupies the same platforms as rights to speech in the First Amendment to the Constitution of the US.
15 1/2 years old in california